The center of advanced cooling systems and methods of metal thermostrengthening OAO 'VNIIMT'

Head of the Center

Lipunov Yuri Ivanovich

Phone/Fax: +7 343 375 29 84, : +7 343 374 22 70




The center of advanced cooling systems and methods of metal thermostrengthening OAO "VNIIMT"

Nowadays in Russia OAO «VNIIMT», the center of advanced cooling systems and methods of metal thermostrengthening, is the leading developer of controlled cooling devices and technology (quenching; heat hardening; heat strengthening; quench hardening; rapid cooling strengthening; rapid-cooling strengthening) for various production processes, for plates of various size and grades.

The center provides a full list of works from the development of automated controlled cooling systems to their turnkey installation. It develops and brings to commercial level new methods of metal thermostrengthening.

Controlled cooling devices

The largest projects


Experts of OAO «VNIIMT» developed or participated in the development and commissioning of the following projects:

  • at “Amursteel” works

·        roll quenching machine for plate iron;

·        device for controlled cooling of slit strip before reeling on the 1700 mill;

  • three plants of accelerated heavy plate cooling behind normalizing furnaces on the 3600 mill at MK “Azovsteel”and the modes of production;
  • section of tie plate heat-treatment at Nizhnesaldinsky plant.
  • change of the main unit design – cooling system – on Cherepovestky metallurgical plant roll quenching machine;
  • device for reinforcement thermostrengthening after the bar-rolling mill at Serov metallurgical plant;
  • sprayer for pipe hardening after the tube-reducing machine of shop N 2 at Pervouralsky novotrubny plant;
  • air-and-water cooling line for tin (after the bath for lacquer coating) at Lysvrnsky metallurgical plant.


Resently the following projects have been developed and put into operation:

  • controlled cooling device for heavy plate from rolling heat using 5000 CherMK OJC «Seversteel» mill in 2002;
  • heat-strengthening device for reinforcement of Æ 25¸40 mm using 350 CherMK OJC «Seversteel» mill in 2005;
  • the equipment for air-and-water cooling of converter shell for CherMK OJC “Seversteel” has been designed, produced and installed in 2005;
  •  heat-strengthening device for reinforcement with autonomous cooling for foundry-rolling system of 280 mill at bar-rolling shop, Yartsevo, Smolenskaya obl. in 2008;
  • equipping the area for production and heat treatment of shin at OAO Eraz-NTMK, Nizhnyaya Salda in 2012;
  • device for thermostrengthening of pump rods in 2012, Ocher.


A number of trial aggregates of controlled cooling for different products were designed and produced and used to work out the methods of thermal treatment. The most significant ones:

  • trial device for railway wheels quenching from special heating in a tire-wheel shop of OJC “NTMK” in 2004;
  • air-and-water cooling device for thermal hardening of fastening instead of oil, alkaline, and saltpetrous bathes at plant “Avtonormal”, Belibei;
  • line for quenching of raw part of track shoe;
  • controlled cooling device for rails.

Automatic process control systems (APCS)

All the devices having delivered to different enterprises recently are equipped with automatic systems providing their work in automated mode. Mathematical models of controlled cooling of thermostrengthened plates, the algorithms of production process control were developed by OAO VNIIMT experts. ACS were developed together with the leading developers of automation systems.

The most important projects on ACS developing

  • APCS for controlled cooling device at the 5000 mill (CherMK OJC «Seversteel»)
  • APCS for reinforcement thermostrengthening device at 350 mill (CherMK OJC «Seversteel»).
  • APCS reinforcement thermostrengthening device GUP Listoprokatny zavod (Yartsevo).
  • ACS of trial device for railroad wheel quenching (WBS OJC “NTMK”).
  • ACS of the area for production and thermostrengthening of shins (EVRAZ NTMK – NSMZ).


Our publication

About controlled cooling devices and technology (quenching; heat hardening; heat strengthening; quench hardening; rapid cooling strengthening; rapid-cooling strengthening)

Development of high –efficiency technologies and devices of controlled cooling for thermohardening of metal

Lipunov Yu. I.

Heat treatment of metal products is the most economical and efficient way to provide the optimal combination of strength and plasticity of metals. This paper is devoted to development of the technology and facility of thermohardening.

Keywords: heat treatment, water and air cooling systems, systems of high-intensive cooling.

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Cooling Processes in the Thermal Hardening of Reinforcement

K. Yu. Eismondt, Yu. I. Lipunov, Yu. G. Yaroshenko, N. V. Bashmachenko, and Yu. V. Fedorichev

A mathematical model of the controllable accelerated cooling of reinforcing rod has been developed. It may be used in the analysis of the thermal hardening of metal rod that has been heated in rolling. The results may be employed in selecting rational conditions of controllable accelerated cooling, which is divided into phases of intense and mild cooling, and the corresponding equipment. The adoption of such a thermal-hardening unit and the corresponding conditions that ensure its stable operation results in the consistent production of thermally hardened reinforcement (diameter 25– 40 mm) of strength class A500S (according to the STO ASChM7-93 standard), made from 3ps, 3Gps, and other steel. The production of reinforcement thermally hardened in the rolling-mill line considerably improves its mechanical properties. This results in a more competitive product, with an expanded market, and allows the customer to employ less massive reinforcement with the same performance, thereby reducing metal consumption.

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Use of accelerated cooling to improve the mechanicaland processing properties of rolled plates used to make large-diameter gas-line pipe

M. Yu. Matrosov, L. I. Efron, V. I. Il’inskii, I. Yu. Severinets, Yu. I. Lipunov, and K. Yu. Eismondt

 Customers have recently been demanding that higher standards be met in regard to the quality of low-alloy steels used to make large-diameter pipes. On the one hand, the more exacting service conditions to which pipelines are being subjected are making it necessary to increase strength and fracture toughness while maintaining good ductility and weldability. On the other hand, there is also pressure to reduce the cost of producing tube steels. A controlled thermomechanical process (TMCP) [1] has been developed to make such steels on plate mills. The process combines thermomechanical (controlled) rolling (CR) with accelerated cooling (AC) after the rolling operation is completed. Realizing the new technology requires equipping the rolling mill with a modern automated unit which ensures that the rolled product will be cooled to the required temperature at a specified rate. The unit also makes sure that the cooling of the steel is uniform and that no warpage of the rolled product takes place. The only state-of-the-art AC unit that presently exists in Russia is installed in the line of the 5000 plate mill at the Severstal’ Metallurgical Combine.

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Use of thermokinetic diagrams of decomposition of supercooled austenite for designing the process of hardening of steel parts at a variable cooling rate

G. G. Trayanov1 and Yu. I. Lipunov

A method for computing the nonequilibrium process of hardening of steel parts at a variable cooling rate, which is based on thermokinetic diagrams (TKD) of decomposition of supercooled austenite, is suggested. The dependences of the intensity of the hardening process on the temperature make it possible to determine the time of the start of the structural transformation and to design its further occurrence. Key words: thermokinetic diagram of decomposition of supercooled austenite, hardening, cooling rate, variable cooling mode, design of the hardening process

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Devices for accelerated cooling of rolled metal products

Yu. I. Lipunov, K. Yu. Eismondt, I. O. Kaganskii, and N. M. Permyakov

Increasing the quality and output of efficient types of rolled metal products would be nearly impossible without the use of efficient cooling devices. The All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Metallurgical Heat Engineering (VNIIMT) has developed various devices and methods for the acclerated cooling of rolled products in different types of treatment.

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Quality of 3 Steel Reinforcement (Class A500S) Thermally Hardened in a 280 Mill

K. A. Myagkova, S. N. Rzhevitskiia, Yu. I. Lipunov, K. Yu. Eismondt, B. Z. Belen’kiic, and I. M. Srogovich

Thermal hardening of 3 steel rolled in the 280 mill at the LPZ casting and rolling plant is developed, so as to produce reinforcement (diameter 14–18 mm) of strength class A500S according to the STO ASChM 7–93 standard. The strength of the metal, whether supplied to the mill in the hot or cold state, is the result of discontinuous quenching with variation in mean_mass self_tempering temperature within the range 565–575°C. The macrostructure, microstructure, and fine structure of the thermally hardened bar is investigated. The properties of the bar are ensured by the structure formed as a result of hardening and sub_ sequent cooling on the roller conveyer and in the cooling unit: mainly tempered martensite in the surface layer; ferrite and cementite in the core of the bar.

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Section for the Thermal Hardening of Reinforcement in the Casting and Rolling System of the 280 Mill

Yu. I. Lipunov, K. Yu. Eismondt, K. A. Myagkov, S. N. Rzhevitskii, V. I. Klopov,

V. A. Dunaev, and E. V. Starikov

A section for thermal hardening of reinforcement has been introduced at the 280 mill of Yartsevo Casting and Rolling Plant. The equipment was developed and supplied by OAO VNIIMT, in collaboration with OAO KO VNIImetmash and ZAO Avtomatizirovannye Sistemy i Kompleksy (ASK), as well as the Yartsevo plant. The section includes equipment for thermal hardening of the reinforcement, with distributed water and air supply, a transport conveyer and tractional rollers, an independent water_supply system, and automated control systems. Optimal thermal_hardening conditions have been developed, and the industrial production of reinforcement of strength class A500S has begun.

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Automated Control System for the Thermal Hardening of Rolled Steel in the Mill

Yu. I. Lipunov, K. Yu. Eismondt, E. V. Nekrasova, and D. V. Zavgorodnev

The proposed automated control system for the sheet- and bar-cooling units take account of the specifics of the rapid cooling processes and the structural details of the equipment. In developing the software for the automated control system, particular attention is paid to statistical analysis of the temperature data, so as to obtain reliable values of the surface temperature and plot the temperature distribution over the length of the rolled steel. The mathematical model of the cooling process developed at OAO VNIIMT permits relatively precise and timely control of the thermal-hardening process and satisfies the product-quality requirements with high precision.

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Automated Control System for the Thermohardening of Reinforcement at a 350 Mill

K. Yu. Eismondt, D. V. Zavgorodnev, E. V. Nekrasova, V. G. Lisienko, V. V. Kuchmasov, V. I. Solov’ev, and S. V. Korzhavin

 An automatic control system has been developed for the device used to thermoharden reinforcement in the line of the 350 mill at OAO Severstal’s bar-rolling shop. The automatic control system permits monitoring and control of the thermohardening process and the equipment. The system consists of two levels, each of which performs particular functions. The system may operate  in two basic modes. In automated direct control, the operator only intervenes in exceptional cases; in operator mode, some tasks are performed automatically, and the remainder by the operator. For maximum flexibility of control, the list of tasks to be performed may be adjusted by the operator.

The autonomous thermohardening control system is integrated into the overall control system for the rolling- mill line and exchanges information with higherlevel and adjacent systems. Display of the process and equipment parameters permits control of the thermohardening unit as a whole and each of its executive mechanisms. The mathematical model operating at the upper level of the thermohardening control system permits real-time implementation of the cooling systems for each batch of reinforcement. Operation in Consultation mode permits simulation of the cooling process in any specified conditions

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Contact us

The center of advanced cooling systems and methods of metal thermostrengthening OAO "VNIIMT"

Head of the Center

Lipunov Yuri Ivanovich

Phone/Fax: +7 343 375 29 84, : +7 343 374 22 70


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